Join us on Patreon! Papers referenced in the video: Chocolate consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a US population: a post hoc analysis of the PLCO cancer screening trial Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in […]

Join us on Patreon! Levine’s Biological age calculator is embedded as an Excel file in this link: Papers referenced in the video: The baseline levels and risk factors for high-sensitive C-reactive protein in Chinese healthy population Commonly used clinical chemistry tests as mortality predictors: Results from two […]

Join us on Patreon! Levine’s Biological age calculator is embedded as an Excel file in this link: DNA methylation GrimAge strongly predicts lifespan and healthspan Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan Dietary intakes of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the […]

Papers referenced in the video: Loss of Life Expectancy by 10 Years or More From Elevated Aspartate Aminotransferase: Finding Aspartate Aminotransferase a Better Mortality Predictor for All-Cause and Liver-Related than Alanine Aminotransferase… Implication of liver enzymes on incident cardiovascular diseases and mortality: A nationwide population-based cohort study…

Papers referenced in the video: Remnant Cholesterol and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk:… The effect of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the potential role of polyphenols in the modulation of adiponectin signaling:… Joint distribution of lipoprotein cholesterol classes. The Framingham study: Long-term […]

Papers referenced in the video: Bacteria Boost Mammalian Host NAD Metabolism by Engaging the Deamidated Biosynthesis Pathway:…​ Comparison of the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide degradation on plasma betaine and choline levels:…​ Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study:​ Total plasma homocysteine values among elderly […]

In November 2020, I made a HDL video based on a meta-analysis in ~3.4 million subjects that was published in July 2020. In Dec 2020, a larger study (n=15.8 million subjects) was published-those data are presented in the video, and compared against the meta-analysis. In addition, I’ve tested my HDL […]

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is one of the 19 variables found on the biological age calculator, It measures the amount of nitrogen, as contained in urea (i.e., blood urea nitrogen, BUN) in your blood. The reference range for BUN is 5 – 20 mg/dL, but within that range, what’s […]

Consistent exercise training would seem like the obvious choice to reduce resting heart rate (RHR) and to increase heart rate variability (HRV). Are there other factors that can impact these variables? Body weight and daily calorie intake may affect RHR and HRV, and in the video I present 700+ days […]

Most often overlooked on a standard blood test are the mean corpuscular volume (MCW) and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW). How do they change during aging, and what’s associated with all-cause mortality risk? Also, with the goal of optimizing MCV and RDW, how does my diet correlate with these […]

Exactly 1 month ago, my first biological age measurement of 2020 was 32.75y ( When considering that my chronological age is 47y, that’s a 14 year improvement, but I wasn’t (and still aren’t) satisfied. When I sent my blood for analysis, I was battling a mild upper respiratory infection (cough, […]

Measurement of biological age with Levine’s Phenotypic Age calculator is strongly correlated with chronological age (r=0.94; see In 2019, I measured all 9 of its analytes 3 times, with biological age readings of 35.39y, 35.58y, and 31.3y, for an average 2019 biological age of 34.09y (see That’s 12 […]

In earlier posts, I reported year-over-year improvements for my resting heart rate (RHR), from 51.5 (bpm) when I first started tracking in August 2018 to 48 bpm in November 2019 ( Did my year-over-year RHR improvement continue in December 2019? As shown below, in December 2018, my average RHR was […]

My average biological age in 2019 is 12 years younger than my chronological age (46y) based on the Phenotypic Age calculator (, and 16y younger based on ( One factor that likely contributes to my relatively youthful biological age is my diet. Shown below is my average daily dietary […]

On June 10, 2019 (for the first time) I measured all of the blood test variables that are included in the biologic age calculator, Phenotypic Age, and ended up with a biological age = 35.39y ( While that value is 23% younger than my chronological age (46y), I knew that […]

High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is one of the 10 variables included in the biological age calculator, PhenoAge ( The reference range for CRP is 0 – 3 mg/L, but within that range, what’s optimal? To answer that question, it’s important to know how CRP changes during aging, and what […]

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is one of the 10 variables included in the biological age calculator, PhenoAge (see It’s calculated by dividing the fraction of the blood that contains RBCs (hematocrit) by RBCs (MCV = hematocrit/RBC), thereby identifying the average volume contained within red blood cells. Although the MCV reference […]

Circulating levels of white blood cells (WBCs) are one of the 10 variables used to quantify biological age with PhenoAge ( The reference range for WBCs is 4.5 – 11 *10^9 cells/L, but within that range, what’s optimal? Several studies have reported that WBCs greater than 5 are associated with […]

In an earlier post, based on data from the Baltimore Longitidunal Study on Aging (BLSA), I suggested that total white blood cell (WBCs) counts between 3500 to 6000 cells per microliter of blood may be optimal for reducing disease risk and for maximizing longevity ( However, within WBCs, neutrophils increase, […]