Tag Archives: Glucose

Metformin Impairs Exercise Training-Related Improvements In Older Adults

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Papers referenced in the video:

Metformin induces muscle atrophy by transcriptional regulation of myostatin via HDAC6 and FoxO3a https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34725961/

Metformin blunts muscle hypertrophy in response to progressive resistance exercise training in older adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial: The MASTERS trial https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31557380/

Metformin inhibits mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training in older adults https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30548390/

Dietary fibre intake is associated with increased skeletal muscle mass and strength (Paper Review)

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Papers referenced in the video:

Higher dietary fibre intake is associated with increased skeletal muscle mass and strength in adults aged 40 years and older https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34585…

A defined, plant-based diet utilized in an outpatient cardiovascular clinic effectively treats hypercholesterolemia and hypertension and reduces medications https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29575…

Attempting To Further Reduce Biological Age: Reducing Glucose (Without Messing Up Other Biomarkers)

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Levine’s Biological age calculator is embedded as an Excel file in this link: https://atomic-temporary-71218033.wpcomstaging.com/2019/09…

High FGF21, Low Insulin And Glucose: A Pro-Longevity Strategy?

Papers referenced in the video:

FGF21 and Chronic Kidney Disease: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science…

The starvation hormone, fibroblast growth factor-21, extends lifespan in mice: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti…

Inhibition of growth hormone signaling by the fasting-induced hormone FGF21: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18585…

Alpha-Ketoglutarate, an Endogenous Metabolite, Extends Lifespan and Compresses Morbidity in Aging Mice: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32877…

Berberine ameliorates cellular senescence and extends the lifespan of mice via regulating p16 and cyclin protein expression: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31773…

Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti…

Regulation of longevity by FGF21: Interaction between energy metabolism and stress responses: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28552…

Disease-specific plasma levels of mitokines FGF21, GDF15, and Humanin in type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease in comparison with healthy aging: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33131…

Aging is associated with increased FGF21 levels but unaltered FGF21 responsiveness in adipose tissue: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30043…

Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 increase with age independently of body composition indices among healthy individuals: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26042…

Lower All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality in Centenarians’ Offspring: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15571…

Favorable Glucose Tolerance and Lower Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring without Diabetes Mellitus of Nonagenarian Siblings: The Leiden Longevity Study: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20398…

Optimizing Blood Cholesterol Levels: What’s My Data?

In an earlier video, I presented data for total cholesterol (TC) levels in blood in terms of changes during aging and all-cause mortality risk. I’ve measured TC 25 times in the past 5 years, and in this video, I present that data, and my approach to optimize it.


Epigenetic Aging: Inflammation, Exercise, Smoking

Besides diet (https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/12/07/slowing-epigenetic-aging-with-diet/), are there other factors that may impact epigenetic aging? First, let’s have a look at clinically relevant variables, including inflammation, the lipid profile, kidney function, blood pressure, and body size/dimensions (Liu et al. 2019):

EA crp.png

One of the strongest correlations for the clinical variables with epigenetic aging (AgeAccelGrim) is found for C-reactive protein (CRP), with higher CRP being associated with an older epigenetic age. This data supports the hypothesis that CRP levels as low as possible may be representative of biological youth, which I’ve previously written about (https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/10/19/optimizing-biological-age-crp/). Similarly, higher values for insulin, glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, BMI, and the waist/hip ratio were correlated with an older epigenetic age, whereas higher HDL was correlated with a younger epigenetic age. Significant correlations were not identified for total or LDL cholesterol, creatinine, or diastolic blood pressure.

Investigating further, the strongest correlation for epigenetic aging was found for smoking, as current smokers had an older epigenetic age. In contrast, those who exercised, drank alcohol, and that had higher levels of education and income had younger epigenetic ages (Liu et al. 2019):

exerc ea



Lu AT, Quach A, Wilson JG, Reiner AP, Aviv A, Raj K, Hou L, Baccarelli AA, Li Y, Stewart JD, Whitsel EA, Assimes TL, Ferrucci L, Horvath S. DNA methylation GrimAge strongly predicts lifespan and healthspan. Aging (Albany NY). 2019 Jan 21;11(2):303-327. doi: 10.18632/aging.101684.

If you’re interested, please have a look at my book!

Quantifying Biological Age: Checklist

To make it easier to review the aging and all-cause mortality data for the circulating biomarkers that are contained within the biological age calculator, Phenotypic Age (see https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/09/09/quantifying-biological-age/), here’s a checklist!

1. Albumin: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/09/22/optimizing-serum-levels-of-albumin-data-from-20-blood-tests/

2. Creatinine: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/11/18/optimizing-biologic-age-creatinine/

3. Glucose: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/10/04/blood-glucose-whats-optimal/

4. C-reactive protein: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/10/19/optimizing-biological-age-crp/

5. Lymphocyte %: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/11/16/lympho-mortal/

6. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV):  https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/10/14/optimizing-biological-age-mcv/

7. Red cell distribution width (RDW%): https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/09/25/optimizing-biological-age-rdw/

8. Alkaline phosphatase: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/10/07/alkaline-phosphatase/

9. White blood cells: https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/10/11/blood-testing-whats-optimal-for-wbc-levels/


Blood glucose: What’s optimal?

The reference range for circulating levels of glucose is 70-130 mg/dL. That’s a wide range, so what’s optimal, especially considering that glucose is one of the variables used to quantify of biological age (https://michaellustgarten.wordpress.com/2019/09/09/quantifying-biological-age)?

In the largest study published for this subject (12,455,361 adults), risk of death for all causes was maximally reduced for glucose levels between 80-94 mg/dL (Yi et al. 2017). In contrast, mortality risk significantly increased when glucose levels were < 80 or > 100 mg/dL in both men and women:

As glucose levels rise above 100 mg/dL, risk for Type II diabetes increases, which is one potential explanation for higher glucose levels being associated with a higher mortality risk. Why would glucose levels lower than 80 mg/dL also be associated with worse health? Interestingly, glucose levels < 80 mg/dL are associated with an increased risk of death from “total external causes” (left panel below), including unintentional accidents and transport accidents (middle, right panel below) in a relatively large study of 345,318 adults (Yi et al. 2019). In addition, an increased mortality risk from transport accidents involving pedestrians or cyclists was associated with glucose levels below 55 mg/dL (data not shown):

Screen Shot 2019-10-02 at 6.33.07 AM

Glucose levels increase during aging (Yi et al. 2017), evidence that adds further merit that lower is better (but not below 80 mg/dL!):

Screen Shot 2019-10-02 at 6.47.39 AM.png

What are my glucose levels? Shown below is my data for the past 13 years:

my bg

On the left side of the chart, I measured my glucose levels about once per year from 33-40y, resulting in an average value of 89 mg/dL. Since 2015 I started daily dietary tracking, and tested more often (19x), resulting in an average value of 87 mg/dL. The comparison between these 2 groups of data is not significantly different (p=0.19). Based on the data in Yi et al., my glucose levels should have increased from 92 to 96 mg/dL during the past 13 years. Instead, my glucose levels during that period are relatively stable, with average value (87.5 mg/dL) that would be expected for a 26y old. So far, so good!

If you’re interested, please have a look at my book!



Yi SW, Park S, Lee YH, Park HJ, Balkau B, Yi JJ. Association between fasting glucose and all-cause mortality according to sex and age: a prospective cohort studySci Rep. 2017 Aug 15;7(1):8194. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08498-6.

Yi SW, Won YJ, Yi JJ. Low normal fasting glucose and risk of accidental death in Korean adults: A prospective cohort studyDiabetes Metab. 2019 Jan;45(1):60-66. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2018.01.005.