Tracking Deep Sleep-Can It Be Improved?

Deep sleep, the stage of sleep also known as “slow wave sleep” declines during aging. Based on a meta-analysis of 65 studies representing 3,577 subjects (aged 5 years to 102 years; Ohayon et al. 2004), slow wave sleep, expressed as a percentage of total sleep time decreases during aging from 25% in childhood to less than 10% in adults older than 65 years:Screen Shot 2019-02-16 at 5.14.10 PM.png Continue reading “Tracking Deep Sleep-Can It Be Improved?”

100 Days Of Dietary Data

I’ve posted individual dietary days as an example of what and how much I eat (https://michaellustgarten.com/2015/12/31/130-grams-of-fiber-2400-calories/). However, a few days of examples may not represent the whole dietary picture. To address this, below is my average nutrient intake for the past 100 days (from October 24, 2018-Feb 5 2019):

100 days of nutrition.png

Notice that my average values for many of these variables (i.e. potassium, selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, etc.) are way above the RDA. For more info on that, I have several blog posts that explain the “why” behind that. Where am I getting those nutrients from? Shown below are 100-day averages for my food intake, ranked in order from most consumed (in grams, or ounces, if it’s a drink) to least:

100 days of foods.png

During the past 100 days, my top 5 foods in terms of daily intake include carrots, strawberries, red peppers, watermelon, and cauliflower. Scroll through the list to see how much I average on a daily basis for each food!

 

Have a look at my book, if you’re interested!

Resting heart rate: What’s optimal?

One of the goals of my exercise program is to reduce my resting heart rate (RHR). A stronger heart beats less times per minute, but pumps more blood per beat. In contrast, a weaker heart beats more times per minute, but less blood per beat.

Is there an optimal level for RHR? Based on a meta-analysis of 59 studies that included 1,810,695 subjects, RHR values < 50 beats per minute (bpm) are associated with maximally reduced risk of death from all causes. Conversely, RHR values > 50 bpm are associated with a higher mortality risk (Aune et al. 2017):

Screen Shot 2019-02-02 at 10.48.29 AM

What’s my resting heart rate? Shown below is that data, tracked by WHOOP since August. Note that my RHR wasn’t significantly different from August until October, ranging from 51-53 bpm (average, 51.7). However, because I was tracking my RHR, I noticed that I was overtraining, leading to very high HRs, lower heart rate variability, and less deep sleep (topics for another post!) the day(s) after exercise. So early in November, I changed my exercise routine. As a result, from November until the end of January, my average RHR (49.7 bpm) has been significantly less (p-value =1E-10), and based on January’s average RHR, I’m trending closer to 47 bpm! Also note that * = significantly different when compared with August.

hr

What did I change in my exercise program? Since I’ve been in Boston (~9 years), I’ve walked 15-20 miles per week: it’s 1.1 miles to and from work, plus at least an hour of walking on Saturdays and Sundays. That’s a constant that hasn’t changed. In contrast, I split my 3-day weight training routine, which totaled ~5-6 hours/week into 3-5 days at less than an hour each session, and at a lower intensity with more reps. My strength is still as good as it was before, and as a result, my recovery HRs aren’t as high, thereby leading to a lower average RHR over time,. I’ve been training like that consistently for the past 30 years, but it took wearing a fitness tracker to change it!

 

Reference

Aune D, Sen A, ó’Hartaigh B, Janszky I, Romundstad PR, Tonstad S, Vatten LJ. Resting heart rate and the risk of cardiovascular diseasetotal cancer, and all-cause mortality – A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studiesNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Jun;27(6):504-517.

 

If you’re interested in living longer and healthier, please have a look at my book!

Homocysteine and All-Cause Mortality Risk

On a recent blood test, my plasma level of homocysteine (Hcy) was 11.9 uMol. Is that optimal minimizing disease risk and maximizing longevity? Let’s have a look at the literature.

A 2017 meta-analysis of 11 studies including 27,737 participants showed an increased risk of death from all causes (“all-cause mortality”; ACM) as circulating levels of homocysteine increase (Fan et al. 2017):

hcy acm.png

When looking at meta-analyses, it’s important to examine each of the individual studies. Here are the data for the 11 included studies:

  • Kark et al. 1999: 1,788 older adults, average age 65y, followed for 9-11 years. Compared with values less than 8.5 uMol, subjects with elevated homocysteine (> 14.7) had a 2-fold higher risk of death from all causes.
  • Bostom et al. 1999: 1,933older adults, verage age, 70y, median follow-up, 10y. Subjects with values > 14.3 uMol had 2-fold ACM risk, when compared with < 14.3.
  • Hoogeveen et al. 2000: 811 older adults (average age, 65y), 5 yr follow-up. Non- diabetics had a 34% increased ACM risk (p=0.08), but diabetics had 2.5-fold increased ACM risk after a 5-yr follow-up.
  • Vollset et al. 2001: 4,766 older adults (age range, 65-67y at study entry), median 4 yr follow-up. Compared with 5.1-8.9 uMol, values greater than 12 were significantly associated with a 2.4-4.5 increased ACM risk.
  • Acevedo et al. 2003. 3,427 subjects, average age 56y, ~3yr follow-up. ACM risk lowest for < 9.4 uMol, compared with > 14.4.
  • González et al. 2007: 215 older adults (average age, 75y), median 4 yr follow-up. Compared with < 8.7 uMol, values > 16.7 had 2.3-fold increased ACM risk.
  • Dangour et al. 2008: 853 older adults (average age, 79y), ~7.6y follow-up. Homocysteins > 19.4 uMol associated with ~2-fold higher ACM risk, when compared with < 9.8.
  • Xiu et al. 2012: 1,412 older adults (average age, ~75y), up to 10 year follow-up. 1.8-fold higher ACM risk comparing those with >14.5 uMol with < 9.3.
  • Waśkiewicz et al. 2012: 7,165 middle aged adults, ~5yr follow- up. 1.8-fold increased ACM risk for subjects with homocysteine > 10.5 uMol(average age, 52y) when compared with < 8.2 (avg age, 40y).
  • Wong et al. 2013: 4,248 older men, average age ~77y, ~5yr follow-up. 1.5-fold increased ACM risk for homocysteine values > 15 uMol.
  • Swart et al. 2012: 1,117 older adults (average age, 75y), up to a 7yr follow-up. In 543 men, homocysteine was not associated with ACM risk. In 574 women, 1.7 to 1.9-fold higher ACM risk when comparing  > 12.7 and >15.6 vs < 10.3 uMol.

Not included in their analysis:

  • Petersen et al. 2016: 670 subjects, average age 65y, average follow-up 14.5y. Subjects with homocysteine values ≥ 10.8 μmol/l  had a significant higher incidence of all-cause mortality:

hcy 2

In sum, the evidence appears consistent across these 12 studies that elevated homocysteine is associated with an increased risk of death from all causes. Based on the Fan et al. (2016) meta-analysis, lower appears better, with values < 5 uMol associated with maximally reduced ACM risk. Also based on that data, my ACM risk is ~1.5-fold increased!

To see how dietary changes and supplements have impacted my homocysteine levels, see this link: https://michaellustgarten.com/2018/03/23/reducing-homocysteine-updates/

If you’re interested, please have a look at my book:

 

References:

Bostom AG, Silbershatz H, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J, D’Agostino RB, Wolf PA, Jacques PF, Wilson PW. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in elderly Framingham men and women. Arch Intern Med. 1999 May 24;159(10):1077-80.

Dangour AD, Breeze E, Clarke R, Shetty PS, Uauy R, Fletcher AE. Plasma homocysteine, but not folate or vitamin B-12, predicts mortalityin older people in the United Kingdom. J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1121-8.

Fan R, Zhang A, Zhong F. Association between Homocysteine Levels and All-cause Mortality: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 6;7(1):4769.

González S, Huerta JM, Fernández S, Patterson AM, Lasheras C. Homocysteine increases the risk of mortality in elderly individuals. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jun;97(6):1138-43.

Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Jakobs C, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CD. Hyperhomocysteinemia increases risk of death, especially in type 2 diabetes : 5-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study. Circulation. 2000 Apr 4;101(13):1506-11.

Kark JD, Selhub J, Adler B, Gofin J, Abramson JH, Friedman G, Rosenberg IH. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine level and mortality in middle-aged and elderly men and women in Jerusalem. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Sep 7;131(5):321-30.

Petersen JF, Larsen BS, Sabbah M, Nielsen OW, Kumarathurai P, Sajadieh A. Long-term prognostic significance of homocysteine in middle-aged and elderly. Biomarkers. 2016 Sep;21(6):490-6.

Swart KM, van Schoor NM, Blom HJ, Smulders YM, Lips P. Homocysteine and the risk of nursing home admission and mortality in older persons. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;66(2):188-95.

Waśkiewicz A, Sygnowska E, Broda G. Homocysteine concentration and the risk of death in the adult Polish population. Kardiol Pol. 2012;70(9):897-902.

Wong YY, Almeida OP, McCaul KA, Yeap BB, Hankey GJ, Flicker L. Homocysteine, frailty, and all-cause mortality in older men: the health in men study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 May;68(5):590-8.

Vollset SE, Refsum H, Tverdal A, Nygård O, Nordrehaug JE, Tell GS, Ueland PM. Plasma total homocysteine and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jul;74(1):130-6.

 

Spinach-banana smoothie

Lately I’ve been drinking lots of spinach-banana smoothies, here’s the recipe!

Baby spinach, 5 oz

A small piece (~20g) of jerusalem artichokes, for its prebiotic potential

Frozen bananas, 5-7 oz

Water, 4-6 oz

Put all that into the blender, then drink it…It’s delicious and nutrient packed!

spin-bana

If you’re interested, please have a look at my book!

4-ingredient brownies

In an earlier post, I wrote about how easy it is to make 2-ingredient, nutrient-rich chocolate (https://michaellustgarten.com/2014/09/21/homemade-chocolate-in-2-minutes/).

Occasionally (~1x/week), I modify that recipe to make 4-ingredient brownies! The recipe includes 40g of raw, organic cacao beans, 20g oats, 70g Medjool dates, and 1 large egg.

First, I grind/blend the cacao beans and oats into a pine powder. Then, I add the dates and powder into the food processor to mix them. I put this mixture into a small bowl, where I add the egg and thoroughly mix it all together. Last, I put this into the oven at 325F for 35 minutes. After it’s cooked, I wait 15 minutes for it to cool down, then I eat it. It’s soft, and delicious!

brownie