Category Archives: Dietary Tracking

VLDL Increases During Aging, And Is Associated With Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes

Papers referenced in the video:

Remnant Cholesterol and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk:…

The effect of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the potential role of polyphenols in the modulation of adiponectin signaling:…

Joint distribution of lipoprotein cholesterol classes. The Framingham study:

Long-term coronary heart disease risk associated with very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Chinese: the results of a 15-Year Chinese Multi-Provincial Cohort Study (CMCS):…

Remnant Cholesterol, Not LDL Cholesterol, Is Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Disease:…

Remnant cholesterol and coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden assessed by computed tomography coronary angiography:…

Premature myocardial infarction is strongly associated with increased levels of remnant cholesterol:…

Homocysteine Increases During Aging, But Can Be Reduced With Diet And Targeted Supplementation

Papers referenced in the video:

Bacteria Boost Mammalian Host NAD Metabolism by Engaging the Deamidated Biosynthesis Pathway:…

Comparison of the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide degradation on plasma betaine and choline levels:…

Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study:

Total plasma homocysteine values among elderly subjects: findings from the Maracaibo Aging Study:…

Hyperhomocysteinemia as a Risk Factor and Potential Nutraceutical Target for Certain Pathologies:…

Hyperhomocysteinemia and risk of incident cognitive outcomes: An updated dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies:…

Association between Homocysteine Levels and All-cause Mortality: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies:…

Red Blood Cells Decline During Aging, But Can Be Increased Through Diet

Red blood cells (RBC) are the most abundant cell type in the human body. I’ve tracked my RBC levels in conjunction with diet since 2015, and with the goal of reversing the age-related decline for RBCs, which dietary components have the strongest correlation with RBCs?

Quantifying Biological Age: Blood Test #5 in 2020

My latest blood test results are in-how’s my biological age?

In the video I discuss my dietary approach prior to my latest blood test, the blood test results, and my plan to improve them with diet going forward.

Biological Age Test #4 in 2020: Getting Better or Getting Worse?

My latest blood test results are in-how’s my biological age? In the video I discuss my dietary approach prior to my latest blood test, the blood test results, and my plan to improve them going forward.

Optimizing Biological Age With Blood Urea Nitrogen

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is one of the 19 variables found on the biological age calculator, It measures the amount of nitrogen, as contained in urea (i.e., blood urea nitrogen, BUN) in your blood. The reference range for BUN is 5 – 20 mg/dL, but within that range, what’s optimal?

First, BUN increases during aging, from 11 – 13 mg/dL in 20 yr olds to 20 – 22 mg/dL in 90 yr olds (Wang et al. 2017):

Screen Shot 2019-11-21 at 5.55.45 AM

The importance of the age-related increase in BUN is illustrated by the finding that risk of death for all causes increases above 15 mg/dL:


Also note that maximally decreased risk for all cause mortality was associated with BUN values between 5 – 15 mg/dL. In addition, even though a BUN value = 20 mg/dL is technically within the reference range, risk of death for all causes would be 50% higher when compared with someone that had BUN levels between 5 – 15 mg/dL. Collectively, based on the aging and all-cause mortality data, I’d argue that 5 – 13 mg/dL may be the optimal range for BUN.

Assuming normal kidney function (see, if your BUN is higher than 15 mg/dL, can it be reduced? Note that urea production is almost perfectly correlated (r = 0.98) with dietary protein intake (Young et al. 2000):
urea nitrog

In other words, the main source of dietary nitrogen is protein, so if you eat a lot of protein, you’ll make a lot of urea. Circulating levels of urea can be easily calculated by measuring BUN, via: Urea [mg/dL]= BUN [mg/dL] * 2.14). Therefore, measuring BUN can then be used to determine if your protein intake is too high or too low.

What’s my BUN? As shown below, I’ve measured BUN 22 times since 2015. In line with the Young et al. (2000) data that showed an almost perfectly linear correlation between dietary nitrogen intake with urea production, similarly, as my dietary protein intake has increased, so have my BUN levels. The correlation between my dietary protein intake with BUN is strong (= 0.76, R^2 = 0.575, p-value = 4.3E-05):

upd bun

Note that my BUN is (purposefully) below 15 mg/dL, the upper limit for reduced all-cause mortality risk in Solinger and Rothman (2013), and within the 11 – 13 mg/dL range reported for the 20 yr olds of Wang et al. (2017).

For more recent tracked data, see the video! 


Solinger AB, Rothman SI. Risks of mortality associated with common laboratory tests: a novel, simple and meaningful way to set decision limits from data available in the Electronic Medical Record. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013 Sep;51(9):1803-13.

Wang Z, Li L, Glicksberg BS, Israel A, Dudley JT, Ma’ayan A. Predicting age by mining electronic medical records with deep learning characterizes differences between chronological and physiological ageJ Biomed Inform. 2017 Dec;76:59-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.11.003.

Young VR, El-Khoury AE, Raguso CA, Forslund AH, Hambraeus L. Rates of urea production and hydrolysis and leucine oxidation change linearly over widely varying protein intakes in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4):761-6.

If you’re interested, please have a look at my book!

Is Weight Loss Driving Improvements For Resting Heart Rate And Heart Rate Variability?

Consistent exercise training would seem like the obvious choice to reduce resting heart rate (RHR) and to increase heart rate variability (HRV). Are there other factors that can impact these variables? Body weight and daily calorie intake may affect RHR and HRV, and in the video I present 700+ days of data for these correlations.

Blood Test Analysis In A 100 Year Old Subject

What are the blood biomarkers of a centenarian, and is there room for improvement? Find out in the video below!

Blood Testing: MCV, RDW. What’s Optimal for Health and Longevity?

Most often overlooked on a standard blood test are the mean corpuscular volume (MCW) and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW). How do they change during aging, and what’s associated with all-cause mortality risk? Also, with the goal of optimizing MCV and RDW, how does my diet correlate with these biomarkers?

Serum Creatinine: What’s Optimal?

In this relatively short clip, I talk about how serum levels of creatinine change during aging, what levels are associated with risk of death for all causes, and I show my own data for 15+ years!